Word museum comes from Greek - museum, which means “house of muses". In the modern sense, museums are institutions that study and preserve cultural monuments, as well as educational goals.
Initially, the word museum meant a collection, but over time, this concept began to mean the houses and buildings in which the exhibits were located.
The first prototype of the modern museum was founded in Alexandria under the name Museyon in 290 BC. In this building there were a huge number of rooms, and in one of them was the famous Alexandria Library, which has not survived to our time. There were also reading rooms, a dining room and other rooms. Gradually, the building expanded and new exhibits were added there, such as stuffed animals, which were used as a visual aid for training.
Museums in ancient times
In ancient Greece, there were also premises in which objects of art and culture were seized from other peoples during the wars, such as sculptures, statues and other works of art.
In the Middle Ages, works of art were presented in temples and monasteries (jewelry, manuscripts). At this time, the exhibits captured during the war served, one might say, as payment for ransoms or other expenses.
In the 15th century, Lorenzo de Medici (an internationally famous family) gave instructions to create the so-called Sculpture Garden. It was during these centuries that it became fashionable to build buildings with long corridors, and in them to place paintings and statues. Over time, fashion took its toll, and the so-called “cabinets” began to be created - rooms specially designed to house works of art. It spread very quickly in Italy, then in Germany and then throughout Europe. Along with cabinets in Germany, collections of unusual things (Wunderkammer) were created.
Creation of modern museums
Any modern museum was created on the basis of a private collection. Many famous people sacrificed their collections to expand it, make it richer and put on public display. Such patrons often sponsored the collection of works of art, thereby helping to create museums.
Many small collections were combined into larger ones, and modern museums were created. Most first modern museum is the British Museum in London, which was opened in 1753. To visit him, written permission was required. But the first public museum was the Louvre, which opened in 1793.